What Are the Different Types of Fuel Pumps?

What Are the Different Types of Fuel Pumps?

Do you ever wonder how or why your car's fuel pumps operate or why they are even present? If you are one of them, this article is for you.

The following article explains the different types of fuel pumps, how they function, and why they are important for your car. If you are searching for a high-flow fuel pump, purchase the Intank EFI Fuel Pump. Before diving into the main topic, let’s start with the basics.

What Is a Fuel Pump?

A fuel pump is a fuel handling equipment that transports gasoline from the fuel tank to the engine. Mostly found in the internal part of combustion engines. In spark ignition engines, it transports gasoline from the tank to the fuel bowl, where it is mixed by the carburetor with air and later transported to the engine combustion chamber.

Types of Fuel Pumps available

1. Mechanical Fuel Pump

Mechanical fuel pumps are primarily low-pressure fuel pumps. However, they are also sometimes used for high-pressure applications in vehicles. For instance, mechanical fuel pumps are in the engine to take petrol from the tank to the ignition fuel bowl.

Diaphragm fuel pumps and plunger-based fuel pumps are the two sub kinds of mechanical fuel pumps.

Diaphragm Fuel Pumps

A diaphragm fuel pump contains a diaphragm that contracts or expands—two one-way valves, exit, and intake, which structure the pump's body. When the diaphragm compresses, the pressure inside the pump decreases below atmospheric pressure causing the gas to move inside the pump through the inlet valve.

In contrast, when the diaphragm expands, the fuel inside effuses out. A lever connecting to the eccentric cam controls the compression and expansion of the fuel pump.

Plunger Based Fuel Pumps

A plunger-based fuel pump is primarily a reciprocating action positive displacement pump. The moveable plunger slides back and forth in a high-pressure cylinder with valves.

When the plunger moves forward, the fuel moves out of the cylinder, and when it moves backward, it brings the fuel into the cylinder. Plunger fuel pumps are an initial technology primarily used in carburetor engines, whereas now most engines use fuel-injection mechanisms.

2. Electrical Fuel Pumps

The edition of fuel-injection systems in most automobile engines demanded using electric fuel pumps. These pumps deliver the fuel to the engine by generating extremely high pressure. Such high pressure makes these fuel pumps vulnerable to explosions. Therefore, they are enclosed in the gasoline tanks away from the engine for safety reasons.

Electric fuel pumps need current to operate, which the car battery delivers. An ECU (eccentric control unit) manages the pressure, gasoline volume, and fuel incoming from the tank. The ECU allows the engine to conserve gas, improving the economy and power. The electric fuel pumps supply the engine with the precise amount of pressure needed for ignition despite the coolness or hotness of the external conditions.

3. High-Pressure Fuel Pump

Since they are mechanical fuel pumps, they require a camshaft to function. A camshaft with an attached lobe pushes the roller, which further moves the piston. The piston performs two cycles: compression and suction.

High pressured fuel pumps use a solenoid to monitor the amount of petrol compressed in the compression cycle. When the pump begins to work, it creates a pressure difference; the solenoid directs the fuel from the low-pressure into the pump.

When the piston moves up, the solenoid opens, pushing the fuel to the low-pressure section of the engine. In comparison, a closed solenoid isolates both the high and low-pressure parts of the engine. The motion of the solenoid depends upon the fuel requirements of the engine. If the engines need more fuel, the solenoid will remain open for a longer interval and compress more fuel. In contrast, engines with lower fuel requirements close the solenoid after a short time.


So, there you have it – a comprehensive guide to fuel pumps. Hopefully, this article has provided you about various types of fuel pumps. With all the information you need to make an informed purchase when the time comes. Keep in mind the different types of fuel pumps available and what will work best for your vehicle and driving needs. Happy motoring!